Cheng completed seven voyages between 1405 and 1433 that took him as … Timeline: Zheng He and the Treasure Fleet, Biography of Christopher Columbus, Italian Explorer, Biography of Zhu Di, China's Yongle Emperor, Biography of Henry Avery, the Most Successful Pirate, La Navidad: First European Settlement in the Americas, J.D., University of Washington School of Law, B.A., History, Western Washington University. The captains of these two junks wrote to the Sharīf Barakāt ibn Hasan ibn ʿAjlān, emir of Mecca, and to Saʾd al-Dīn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Marra, controller of Judda [Jeddah], asking permission to come to Judda. [5], The History of Ming (1739) credits the first voyage with 62 treasure ships crewed by 27,800 men. In stormy weather, holes in the prow would partially fill with water when the ship pitched forward, thus lessening the violent turbulence caused by waves. Stockholm 4. He became a chief aide of the Prince of Yan. Drastically changing the face of Indian Ocean trade and power, these fleets embarked on seven epic voyages under Zheng He's guidance, resulting in a rapid expansion of Ming China's control in the region, but also of their struggle to maintain it in years to come due to the financial burden of such endeavors. ), Wiesbaden 15.2005, pp.155-176. He led 7 voyages. Mozambique 10. The replica of his flagship was closed for the winter when I was there. And after they have pounded them well, these three things together, I tell you that it becomes sticky and holds like birdlime. Following Zheng He’s death, the Xuande emperor moved to isolate China and banned all further expeditions. Seven-masted "liangchuan" or grain ships carried rice and other food for the crew and soldiers in the fleet. And then the sailors find out where the ship is staved, and then the hold which answers to the break is emptied into others, for the water cannot pass from one hold to another, so strongly are they shut in; and then they repair the ship there, and put back there the goods which had been taken out.They are indeed nailed in such a way; for they are all lined, that is, that they have two boards above the other.And the boards of the ship, inside and outside, are thus fitted together, that is, they are, in the common speech of our sailors, caulked both outside and inside, and they are well nailed inside and outside with iron pins. Cape Town 9. Information. And they travelled in the company of Qādi Wajīh al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Rahman b. Jumay out of the sheltered harbour of Aden in the month of Safar of the year 822 [March 1419].[9]. However, such use of this piece of archeological evidence rests upon supposing proportions between the rudder and the length of the ship, which have also been the object of intense contestation. Several timbers would have to be joined together vertically. In addition, in the contemporary account of Zheng He's 7th voyage by Gong Zhen, he said it took 200 to 300 men to handle Zheng He's ships. ( STO - Agents of Yesterday mission : " In the Shadow of Cestus ") In the year 2399 , Zheng He and a squadron of sister ships was sent to intervene at the planet Coppelius after retired Admiral Jean-Luc Picard made a priority request for Starfleet and Federation involvement. However, the addition of 255 ships is a case of double accounting according to Edward L. Dreyer, who notes that the Taizong Shilu does not distinguish the order of 250 ships from the treasure ships. In 2399, the Zheng He was commanded by Acting Captain William T. Riker at the head of a fleet of ships tasked to help defend Coppelius from Zhat Vash forces. The sailors never lower them (while sailing, but simply) change the direction of them according to whether the wind is blowing from one side or the other. [3] Xin Yuan'ou, a shipbuilding engineer and professor of the history of science at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, argues on engineering grounds that it is highly unlikely that Zheng He’s treasure ships were 450 ft long, and suggests that they were probably closer to 200–250 ft (61–76 m) in length. [14], I tell you that they are mostly built of the wood which is called fir or pine.They have one floor, which with us is called a deck, one for each, and on this deck there are commonly in all the greater number quite 60 little rooms or cabins, and in some, more, and in some, fewer, according as the ships are larger and smaller, where, in each, a merchant can stay comfortably.They have one good sweep or helm, which in the vulgar tongue is called a rudder.And four masts and four sails, and they often add to them two masts more, which are raised and put away every time they wish, with two sails, according to the state of the weather.Some ships, namely those which are larger, have besides quite 13 holds, that is, divisions, on the inside, made with strong planks fitted together, so that if by accident that the ship is staved in any place, namely that either it strikes on a rock, or a whale-fish striking against it in search of food staves it in... And then the water entering through the hole runs to the bilge, which never remains occupied with any things. Reykjavik 5. But the Zheng He actually isn't the first such ship mentioned in the series. The number "4" has numerological significance as a symbol of the 4 cardinal directions, 4 seasons, and 4 virtues. The eight-masted ships, called "machuan" or "horse ships," were about 2/3 the size of the baoshan measuring approximately 340 feet by 138 feet. Why did Zheng He need so many huge ships? According to British scientist, historian and sinologist Joseph Needham, the dimensions of the largest of these ships were 135 metres (440 ft) by 55 metres (180 ft). [5] A Zheng He era inscription in the Jinghai Temple in Nanjing gave the size of Zheng He ships in 1405 as 2,000 liao (500 tons), but did not give the number of ships. Coincidentally, the only physical evidence of treasure ships comes from Nanjing. Zheng He's flagship was said to be over 440 ft. in length and may have had a crew of 1,000 officers and men. (PIC: " Et in Arcadia Ego, Part 2 ") There seems to be disagreement among scholars about the factual accuracy and correct interpretation of accounts of the treasure ship. Zheng He’s armada of 317 ships ranked as the largest in the world until modern times. Unlike a typical fuchuan warship, the treasure ships had nine staggered masts and twelve square sails, increasing its speed. The great explorer. The ships also had a balanced rudder which could be raised and lowered, creating additional stability like an extra keel. It is probable that the actual size of the ships was smaller, since in later historical periods wooden ships approaching this size (such as HMS Orlando) were unwieldy and visibly undulated with the waves, even … For nowhere in the world are there to be found people richer than the Chinese. Watertight compartments characteristic of traditional Chinese ships tended to make the vessels transversely strong but longitudinally weak. All of the measurements in the remaining Ming Chinese records of the Treasure Fleet are in a unit called "zhang," which is made up of ten "chi" or "Chinese feet." Along with dozens of baoshan, each armada included hundreds of smaller ships. Zheng He or Ma He (Chinese 郑和; 1371–1433) was an explorer, diplomat, and admiral from China.He lived during the Ming Dynasty.Zheng He was the leader of a very large fleet of ships that traveled all over the Indian Ocean and Southwest Asia.Zheng He was an eunuch of China's Imperial Court.The fleet that Zheng He commanded had 317 ships that were very large. Assuming a range of 10.5 to 12 inches for each chi, the dimensions of the treasure ships as recorded by the History of Ming would have been between 385 by 157.5 feet and 440 by 180 feet (117.5 by 48 metres, and 134 by 55 metres). The Ministry of Works used a chi of 12.1 inches while the Jiangsu builders used a chi of 13.3 inches. [30], A 71.1-metre (233.3 ft) copy of a treasure ship was announced in 2006 to be completed in time for the 2008 Olympic Games. This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 08:29. Finally, the small, five-masted warships or "zhanchuan," each about 165 feet long, were designed to be maneuverable in battle. Taken on: 2017-04-06 12:02:21. [30][31], One explanation for the colossal size of the 44 largest Zhang treasure ships, if in fact built, was that they were only for a display of imperial power by the emperor and imperial bureaucrats on the Yangtze River when on court business, including when reviewing Zheng He's actual expedition fleet. It reports the arrival of Chinese ships in 1419, 1423, and 1432, which approximately correspond to Zheng He's fifth, sixth, and seventh voyages. In real life, Zheng He was a 15th-century Chinese mariner and fleet admiral. The replica of his flagship was closed for the winter when I was there. His majesty, the Sultan al-Malik al-Nāsir ordered that the Envoy of the ruler of China [rusul sāhib al-Sị̄n] returned with gifts of his own, including many rare, with frankincense wrapped coral trees, wild animals such as Oryx, wild ass, thousands of wild lion and tamed cheetahs. The dimensions of ships are no coincidence. When these walls have thus been built, the lower deck is fitted in, and the ship is launched before the upper works are finished.The pieces of wood, and those parts of the hull, near the water (-line) serve for the crew to wash and to accomplish their natural necessities.On the sides of these pieces of wood also the oars are found; they are as big as masts, and are worked by 10 to 15 men (each), who row standing up.The vessels have four decks, upon which there are cabins and saloons for merchants. The dimensions of the treasure ships, as recorded in later historical chronicles, are disputed by scholars. Mogadishu 11. This means the Curiosity-class has been in service for at least 9 years; Rios left Starfleet in 2390, nearly a decade before Star Trek: Picard 's main story set in 2399. They are not pitched with pitch, because they have none of it in those regions, but they oil them in such a way as I shall tell you, because they have another thing which seems to them to be better than pitch. For ease of comparison, the measurements below are given in English feet. Zheng He Treasure Ship can be rebuilt at the Shipyard Bossin any of the following locations: 1. On the way back to China, laden with tribute and envoys, the Treasure Fleet confronted the pirate Chen Zuyi at Palembang, Indonesia. The sails of these vessels are made of strips of bamboo, woven into the form of matting. Sri Lanka 17. Photographer's comment: Bei Grünendeich, quasi unter der Elbquerung. [6], Alongside the treasures were also another 255 ships according to the Shuyu Zhouzilu [zh] (1520), giving the combined fleet of the first voyage a total of 317 ships. However the common Ming value for chi was 12.2 inches and the value fluctuated depending on region. It's impressive as a feat of littoral-water naval architecture. Suez 13. The flagship and other largest treasure junks dwarfed European ships of that century; even Christopher Columbus's flagship, the "Santa Maria," was between 1/4 and 1/5 the size of Zheng He's. This is the only contemporary account containing references to both treasure ships and a specific place of construction. [40], Large wooden vessel commanded by the Chinese admiral Zheng He, "Baochuan" redirects here. The other reason was that Zheng He traveled with an estimated 27,000 to 28,000 sailors, marines, translators and other crew members. [24] Louise Levathes estimating that it had a maximum size of 110–124 m (390–408 feet) long and 49–51 m (160–166 feet) wide instead, taking 1 chi as 10.53-11.037 inches. Among them were the legendary treasure ships, the Fuchan warships, patrol boats, horse ships, supply ships, troop transporters and water tankers. Bombay 16. As indicated by the name, the machuan carried horses along with timber for repairs and tribute goods. [8], According to the Liujiagang and Changle Inscriptions, the seventh voyage had "more than a hundred large ships".[8]. [12], Although active prior to the treasure voyages, both Marco Polo (1254–1325) and Ibn Battuta (1304–1369) attest to large multi-masted ships carrying 500 to 1000 passengers in Chinese waters. All of Zheng He’s ships were destroyed along with most of the records of the seven voyages. Scholars find these figures problematic and hard to verify, in that wooden sailing ships in excess of 300 feet (90 m) in length are structurally unsound. The 1419 arrival is described thus: Arrival of Dragon-ships [marākib al-zank] in the protected harbour city [of Aden] and with them the messengers of the ruler of China with brilliant gifts for his Majesty, the Sultan al-Malik al-Nāsir in the month of l’Hijja in the year 821 [January 1419]. But two such drydocks measured 64 m (210 feet) wide, considered large enough to build a ship 50 m (166-foot) wide. [7] The Jinghai Temple inscription gave the ship dimensions in 1409 as 1500 liao (375 tons). [18], On 1 March 1404, 50 "seagoing ships" were ordered from the Capital Guards. Al-Nāsir wrote a letter to the Lord of China: "Yours it is to command and [my] country is your country. Watertight compartments were also used to add strength to the treasure ships. When he arrives at the guesthouse where he is to stay, they set up their lances on each side of the gate, and mount guard throughout his visit.Among the inhabitants of China there are those who own numerous ships, on which they send their agents to foreign places. Admiral Zheng He (aka Cheng Ho, c. 1371-1433 CE) was a Chinese Muslim eunuch explorer who was sent by the Ming dynasty emperor Yongle (r. 1403-1424 CE) on seven diplomatic missions to increase trade and secure tribute from foreign powers. Zheng He from 1405 to 1433 made 7 voyages with over 1000 soldiers and crew to India and Africa. Dionisius A. Agius (2008) estimated a size of 200-250 ft and maximum weight of 700 tons. A ship with 9 masts would be unable to resist the combined strength and force of such huge sails, she would not be able to cope with strong wind and would break. [1] Historians such as Edward L. Dreyer are in broad agreement with Needham's views. Amazingly, this enormous fleet consisted of 62 Capitol Ships and 238 smaller ships with a crew compliment of 27,800 officers and men. Traditional and popular accounts of Zheng He's voyages have described a great fleet of gigantic ships far larger than any other wooden ships in history. 15. The number 4 was an auspicious association for treasure ships. [15], People sail on the China seas only in Chinese ships, so let us mention the order observed upon them.There are three kinds: the greatest is called 'jonouq', or, in the singular, 'jonq' (certainly chuan); the middling sized is a 'zaw' (probably sao); and the least a 'kakam'.A single one of the greater ships carries 12 sails, and the smaller ones only three. Luanda 8. Historical records from the Ming dynasty say that Zheng He’s treasure ships were amazingly large —447 feet (136 m) long and 183 feet (56 m) wide. When the ships cast anchor, the sails are left standing in the wind...These vessels are nowhere made except in the city of Zaytong (Quanzhou) in China, or at Sin-Kilan, which is the same as Sin al-Sin (Guangdong).This is the manner after which they are made; two (parallel) walls of very thick wooden (planking) are raised, and across the space between them are placed very thick planks (the bulkheads) secured longitudinally and transversely by means of large nails, each three ells in length. A description of them appears in adventure novel by Luo Maodeng, The Three-Treasure Eunuch’s Travels to the Western Ocean (1597). Between 1405 and 1433, Ming China under the rule of Zhu Di, sent out enormous armadas of ships into the Indian Ocean commanded by the eunuch admiral Zheng He. The flagship and other largest treasure junks dwarfed … South China and Maritime Asia. The eight-masted ships, called "machuan" or "horse ships," were about 2/3 the size of the baoshan measuring approximately 340 feet by 138 feet. ): Zheng He - Images & Perceptions. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. The balanced rudder placed as much of the rudder forward of the stern post as behind it, making such large ships easier to steer. Zheng He's Smaller Ships Along with dozens of baoshan, each armada included hundreds of smaller ships. As such, they lacked the fuchuan's raised platforms or extended planks used for battle.[36]. Treasure ships also used floating anchors cast off the sides of the ship in order to increase stability. Though tiny compared with the baochuan, the zhanchuan were more than twice as long as Christopher Columbus's flagship, the Santa Maria. Some of the drydocks at Longjiang Shipyard at Nanjing—known informally as the Treasure Ship Yard—were 27 to 36 m (90 to 120 feet) wide. [17], On 4 September 1403, 200 "seagoing transport ships" were ordered from the Capital Guards in Nanjing. ibn-Majid, which was also a Curiosity-class starship. According to Chinese sources Zheng He commanded 70 fleets with 300 ships or more and a 30,000 strong crew. Photo of CMA CGM ZHENG HE (Container ship, IMO: 9706906, MMSI: 215199000, Callsign: 9HA5009, Flag: Malta, Photo-ID: 3076037) taken by PW1304. The sight of these enormous ships appearing on the horizon one by one must have been truly incredible for the people all along the Indian Ocean's rim and would have enhanced Ming China's prestige immeasurably. With the benefit of modern technology it would be difficult to manufacture a wooden ship of 10,000 tons, let alone one that was 1.5-2 times that size. A replica of a ship used by Ming Dynasty eunuch explorer Cheng Ho, also known as Zheng He, is under construction at a park in Nanjing, eastern China's Jiangsu Province, August 29, 2006. Standing seven feet tall, China's maritime giant Admiral Zheng He led the world's mightiest fleet, with 300 ships and as many as 30,000 troops under his command. Back when he was in Starfleet, Chris Rios served on the U.S.S. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Sizes According to Ming Chinese Measurements. It has been widely said dimensions of this rudderpost corresponds with a ship of between 538 and 600 feet in length,[17] lending credence to the notion that ships of these dimensions were indeed built. And with this thing they smear their ships, and this is worth quite as much as pitch.Moreover I tell you that these ships want some 300 sailors, some 200, some 150, some more, some fewer, according as the ships are larger and smaller.They also carry a much greater burden than ours. Treasure ships also had 24 cast-bronze cannons with a maximum range of 240 to 275 m (800–900 feet). As indicated by the name, the machuan carried horses along with timber for repairs and tribute goods. 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