General Smith took special notice of the imposing display of spears, lances, and bayonets. Mark walked for 2 of his great grandfathers but also walked for Truman O. Angell who was part of the Nauvoo Legion and one of my relatives. At 3:00pm Legionnaires took their positions on the battlefield. Nauvoo Legion. Among those who accepted was Judge Stephen A. Douglas and thousands of other visitors streamed in Nauvoo before sunup on May 7, in wagons, carriages, skiffs, riverboats, and steamers. In 1870 the Utah Territorial governor, J. Wilson Shaffer forced the Legion inactive unless he ordered otherwise. A carronade, a ship cannon, was purchased by the legion in Nauvoo. The 4 pound Spanish bronze is in the Mormon Battalion Visitor Center in San Diego, Calif. Joseph Smith himself was Nauvoo's second mayor, and the Nauvoo court martial also appointed him as highest-ranking officer of the Legion, a Lieutenant General. Next came the walkers, with some dressed in 1840s clothing. authorized permission to impose martial law from the Governor of Illinois. Tanner Trust Fund, University of Utah Library, 1980 found online at: Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, https://collections.lib.utah.edu/details?id=328944, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/BYUIBooks/id/3168, "Uniforms and Equipment of the Black Hawk War and the Mormon War", "Nauvoo Legion, 1840–1845 — A Unique Military Organization", "Series 2210: Territorial Militia Records, 1849–1877, 1905–[ca.1917]", List of Reorganized Restorationist churches, Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) history, Doctrine and Covenants (Book of Commandments), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nauvoo_Legion&oldid=1000193416, History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Military units and formations established in 1840, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Utah, Articles lacking in-text citations from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Protect Mormon settlers from domestic and foreign enemies, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 01:45. The Nauvoo Legion never gathered again, and the 1887 Edmunds-Tucker Act permanently disbanded it. It was not until 1:00pm that he dismissed the soldiers, advising them to make ready for a sham battle. It arrived in Salt Lake in 1852. At this Independence Day celebration, Joseph Smith spoke of patriotism and revealed, “I would ask no greater boon, than to lay down my life for my country.”  After his speech, ranking officers adjourned to the temple site, where a sumptuous feast was served for their enjoyment. “General Bennett next requested me to take my station in the rear of the cavalry, without my staff, during the engagement; but this was counteracted by Captain A. P. Rockwood, commander of my life guards, who kept close to my side,” wrote Smith. It was a miracle. Not long after the arrival of the Mormons in Iowa, in 1846, Mormon legionnaires volunteered to serve in the 500 man Mormon Battalion for the U.S. government military expedition to Mexican California during the Mexican–American War. This force was a militia similar to others in Illino… Also, the Harper's Ferry Model 1803 Rifle was issued in smaller quantities. Young, Brigham, and Everett L. Cooley. Voter-conscious Illinois Democrats and Whigs (including Abraham Lincoln) passed a bipartisan city-state charter for Nauvoo in 1840. When July mustering ended, many assumed that parading was over, but not so. Rather than employ the Legion to protect Nauvoo from increased mob violence, Young directed Nauvoo's tens of thousands of citizens to migrate peacefully to the western part of the continent which wasn't yet part of the United States and they founded the territory of Utah. A 6-pound iron cannon, probably the other battalion cannon and a smaller, but similar, 2 pound cannon were in the warehouse. Nine days later, on June 27, he was murdered in Carthage, Illinois. Although the charter authorizing the Nauvoo Legion created an independent militia, it could be used at the disposal of the state governor or the President of the United States as well as for the mayor of Nauvoo. Not long after the arrival of the Mormons in Iowa, in 1846, Mormon legionnaires volunteered to serve in the 500 man Mormon Battalion for the U.S. government military expedition to Mexican California during the Mexican–American War. It was also under the auspices of the militia that the groups of men were organized who were instructed to burn down Salt Lake City and other parts of northern Utah should the invading army try to take up residence. After John Hafen (1856-1910), Last Public Address of Lieut. An exact description of the Nauvoo Legion flag (1841-1845) is not available. Beschreibung Nauvoo Legion Cavalry Guidon (Probable).svg English: An illustration based on a swallowtail flag owned by the Museum of Church History and Art, now known as the Church History Museum. To them, the Legion of Nauvoo had become a militia force to be feared. “We doubt whether the like was presented in any other city in the western country,” remarked General Smith.13, Other parades in 1842-1843 echoed the confidence of the May parade. The Nauvoo Legion was a state-authorized militia of the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, United States. [citation needed]. Neither the Legion nor any other Mormon troops participated in the main theaters of the war, and the Legion's involvement ended in 1862, after Congress had passed the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act.[5]. They were led by a flag bearer and drummer boy followed by a contingent dressed as the Nauvoo Legion. Feeling confident in his military prowess and that of the legionnaires, General Smith invited state and local leaders to attend the May 7, 1842, parade. In their wake marched military musicians under the apt baton of Captain Edward P. Duzette. Led by Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement and a mayor of Nauvoo, the Legion quickly became a formidable concentration of military power. People carried flags that represented the countries that they came from. Among these was the authority to create a "body of independent militarymen". The soil deed started a fast pace . The History of the Church records, “The Legion paraded at the Masonic Hall field one day … then moved for drillings to ‘the ground near Spencer’s northeast of the Temple”‘ the next.16. An area memorialized by the somber Far West cemetery and LDS Temple. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Mormon Battalion (United States Army) (1846–1847), Mormon Battalion – five companies (534–559), Utah Territorial Military Commander Robert T. Burton, Utah Territorial Governor Stephen S. Harding. Personal arms were also used. [citation needed]. At 9:30am cannon blasts signaled the arrival of, or as the Times and Seasons reported “gave an appropriate salute” to, Lieutenant General Joseph Smith, commander-in-chief.2  A silk flag – “The 26-Star Flag”3 was presented to General Smith by a delegation of ladies. Albumen silver print of a lithograph. Only the entrance of the 1st cohort (horse troops) turned their gaze. Twenty or so men including Mark were the Nauvoo Legion and marched with guns and ammo sacks (all pretend) at the head of the crowd. Salt Lake City Utah USA Museum of Church History Nauvoo Legion Flag - Territorial Flag & United States Flag Wagon illustration, Happy Pioneer Day text. I was worried about walking all that way. But of the, Smith penned, “Highly delighted.”15, It was not until June 18, 1844, that General Smith moved from the sidelines to once again take command of a large parade and “with my staff rode in front of the Legion, marched up Main Street, and returned to our former parade ground.”  This was the last parade Joseph Smith would lead. In the last month of his life, June 1844, Joseph Smith declared martial law in Nauvoo in response to various civil disturbances and initially deployed the Nauvoo Legion to defend the city, only to restrain the Legion from any action later. Behind them came missionaries and members carrying flags of many of the nations from which the pioneer residents of Nauvoo had come. MS 3430, fd. [citation needed] (Antonga Black Hawk was a Ute and has no connection to the Illinois Sauk chief Black Hawk of the 1830s.) As he reviewed the soldiers, “the governor, General J. J. Hardin and staff” looked on. 1. NauvooLegionpaint.gif 576 × 378; 136 KB. As Legionnaires obeyed, conspicuously missing at their minor events was the commander-in-chief and his military staff. It was nicknamed the "Old Sow" and is on display at the Church History Museum in Salt Lake City. When the Mormon Battalion was enlisted in July, 1846, about 450 Model 1816 muskets were issued to the infantry. My marching picked up. The Legion’s main purpose, according to JS, was to protect the city from mobs and enforce city ordinances and state laws. Legionnaires made a credible and soldier-like appearance with but on notable flaw. People came from all over the US to be part of the parade. On September 27, 1844, a visitor to Nauvoo, Thomas Ford, governor of Illinois, was handed the following invitation: “Sir:  The review of the Nauvoo Legion will take place this day (September 28) at twelve p.m., at which time the commander-in-chief, with his staff, is respectfully solicited to accept an escort from the Legion and be present at the review.”17  The surprised governor accepted. Graphic Arts Collection. The final amen marked the close of the day’s events. When we got to the river, their was a flag ceremony and a prayer. At this point, events of the day turned from military to religious. This rank is one step above Major General, which most contemporary militias employed as their commanding rank. Major General Bennett, Brigadiers Law and Smith, the aides-de-camp, and invited guests followed close behind. The most common musket issued to these militiamen was the Model 1816 Musket. He organized the first Mormon militia group known as the "Armies of Israel" to protect his people. After General Smith inspected the military formation, nodding his approval, he ordered the Legionnaires to advance to the temple grounds. Interesting is an alternative, historical scenario: The Indian tribes end their antagonisms and annihilate the US Army, led by President Rutherford Hayes, on 30 May 1876. General Smith pronounced a benediction on the stone:  “This principal corner stone in representation of the First Presidency, is now duly laid in honor of the Great God.”  Rigdon added, “May the persons employed in the erection of this house be preserved from all harm while engaged in its construction.”6  The assembled were then invited to adjourn for an hour as Legion officers scurried to make ready the afternoon events. Early that morning the sisters presented to Joseph Smith and the Nauvoo Legion a silk flag with 27 stars representing each state in the union at that time. [citation needed]. The iron Spanish 2 and 6 pound cannons remain in storage in Salt Lake City. Gen. Joseph Smith, no date, original 1888. To their surprise, the afternoon house were filled with the dedication of three more temple cornerstones. The name Nauvoo Legion was revived in Utah and applied to the organized militia of the state of Deseret and later of Utah Territory. Voter-conscious Illinois Democrats and Whigs (including Abraham Lincoln) passed a bipartisan city-state charter for Nauvoo in 1840. And, faithfully, sustain us, in peace upon her land. The flag was respectfully received and the occasion hailed by more cannon fire. Utah (/ ˈ juː t ɑː / YOO-tah, / ˈ juː t ɔː / YOO-taw) is a state in the Western United States.It is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south and Nevada to the west. As the band played, flags topped with brass-colored eagles were held aloft. At its peak, it is said to have numbered 5,000 men, the largest such body in Illinois. I prayed to God to help me bless my steps. Records for the weapons issued to the other companies are missing. General Joseph Smith : Posted by Bedard Fine Arts at 10:42 AM No comments: Sunday, January 25, 2015. In 1839, Joseph Smith relocated his followers from a hostile environment in Missouri to Commerce, Illinois, which he renamed Nauvoo. On that date, soldiers again gathered at an early hour at the parade grounds. These were thought at that time to have come from Sutter's purchase of the Russian Fort Ross and to have been either Russian or French cannons. The soldiers did not carry weapons.18  Parading without arms was a deliberate attempt to put the governor on notice that his order to surrender three cannons and 220 small arms on June 24, 1844, had crippled them in fulfilling their role as a state-sanctioned militia. Tradition says this flag was carried by the Mormon Battalion when it was in California in 1846-47, and in fact, the Bear was added to the flag while the Mormon troops were in California under the command of Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke. The Legion flag of the 1850s had thirteen stars and stripes, symbolic of the United States flag. In Utah, the Deseret Militia and Utah Territorial Militia used the official name of the Nauvoo Legion. It also touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. Likely a cavalry guidon of the Utah era version of the Nauvoo Legion. The parade was led by missionaries carrying flags and wearing uniforms that represented the Nauvoo Legion. An Afghan National Army soldier listens while a member of the U.S. Army Marksmanship Unit gives instructions during the Basic Rifle Marksmanship Instructor Course at Kabul Military Training Center, Afghanistan, Nov. 6, 2010. 4 (Winter 11957): 398. History records more parades, drills, and mustering’s held in the weeks following Smith’s death than in the preceding two years. Participants ranged in age … Whether on parade or the battlefield, soldiers of Nauvoo gave new meaning to a well-equipped and capable fighting militia. Nauvoo Legion, Records, 1841–1845. The final use of the Legion was in Utah's Black Hawk War 1865–1872 when over 2,500 troops were dispatched against Indians led by Antonga Black Hawk. The Nauvoo Legion was permanently disbanded in 1887. This legion was called upon in 1849 to subdue marauding Indians, and its members served in the so-called Walker War of 1853-1854, named after Wakara, a Ute chieftain. We were encouraged to wear costumes. “And if General Bennett’s true feelings toward me are not made manifest to the world in a very short time, then it may be possible that … a short time will determine that point.”11  Believing that Bennett had tried to murder him, General Smith said, “Let John C Bennett answer at the day of judgment, ‘Why did you request me to command one of the cohorts, and also to take my position without my staff, during the sham battle, in the 7th day of May, 1842, where my life might have been the forfeit, and no man have known who did the deed?”’12, Whether Smith’s dark premonitions were correct is debatable. This military force was a militia similar to the Illinois State Militia, and it became known as the "Nauvoo Legion". The waving Legion flags,4 the state flag of Illinois, and the famed red, white, and blue of the United States produced the desired effect – patriotic pride. The original Nauvoo Legion may have used the flag. And also legion members participated in the rescue of Joseph from the state Militia who had unlawfully arrested him after luring him to what was supposed to be a peaceful political debate and were going to hang him (citation needed). 6 “A Proclamation, to the Saints Scattered Abroad,” Times and Seasons, 15 Jan. 1841, 2:274; JS, Journal, 4 July and 14 Aug. 1842; JS History, vol. GA 2012- in process. GeneralJosephSmithAddress-JohnHafen.jpg 338 × 410; 63 KB. Nauvoo newspaper was burned to the ground on Joseph Smith's orders, due to the publication of articles critical of Smith and his church's policies; Joseph Smith was ordered to the Carthage Jail under charges of Treason. A few light cannons were also attached. 12, April 15, 1841. From June 27 to July 7, 1844, Legionnaires daily drilled, exercised, and paraded as if their very lives and that of their loved ones depended upon their military skills. Smith family tradition, however, only pushes it back as far as the Nauvoo Temple -- flying over the City of Joseph.--- The Nauvoo Legion in Illinois was able to draw on Federal stands of arms. Young led the Latter-day Saints to what later became the Territory of Utah. Following these flag bearers came other people walking—many families—and some participants riding in horse-drawn buggies and wagons. The Indians won is a novel about the relationships of immigrants and native Americans, written by Martin Cruz Smith, who is, as far as I know half Cherokee. After this conflict, the Federal government appointed Utah's territorial governor, and the Nauvoo Legion was allowed to exist at the command of the governor. An exact description of the Nauvoo Legion flag (1841-1845) is not available. I could barely keep up and was falling behind. NauvooLegion.jpg 470 × 364; 73 KB. The 1st cohort was under the command of General Wilson Law and the 2nd under the direction of General Charles C. Rich. Curious guests lingered near the temple grounds hoping that artillery fire, sword exercises, and a sham battle would follow. It began at precisely 7:30am when artillery fire announced the arrival at the parade grounds of Brigadier Generals Wilson Law and Don Carlos Smith and their respective cohorts. At 10:00am Major General Bennett made a grand entrance to his brightly colored uniform with plumb atop a chapeau. On July 4, 1837, "The 26-Star Flag" became the official flag of the United States. Ibid, 4:502; Times and Seasons, February 15, 1842. The Legion was followed by flag bearers from different countries of those that migrated here to join the church. The Illinois state legislature granted Nauvoo a liberal city charter that gave the Nauvoo Legion extraordinary independence even though it was still a component of the Illinois State Militia and under the ultimate authority of the Governor of Illinois. Supposedly, this was to elevate the social status and official standing of some members of the city. [2] The Legion was organized into two regiments (called cohorts) of infantry and one regiment of cavalry. Few Legionnaires at this, their last parade, walked with heads held high and even fewer recalled the boastful days when Hosea Stout’s poem of greatness applied: They’ll find that Illinois firm in her place will stand. Before the exercises in the dancing pavilion and at intervals during the addresses of the speakers, veterans of the Nauvoo Legion made “Old Sow,” the cannon which figures prominently in the history of the legion, “snort.” Fifteen shots were fired in honor of the nation’s flag. See Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 50, no. Five 1803 Harpers Ferry rifles were issued to the hunters of company A. There are however some reported incidents in diaries of Saints concerning gunfire exchange between legion members and mobs during the Nauvoo era (citation needed). Of a company parade held on September 10, 1842, General Smith wrote, “this was the day for the training of the companies of the Nauvoo Legion; and lest I should be observed … I kept very still.”14 Without Joseph Smith reviewing the troops in his splendid military regalia, small parades attracted little attention. Depleted of its official status, remnants assumed roles such as guardians of the handcart and wagon companies heading west after being reorganized by Hosea Stout on September 22, 1846, as they amassed on the other side of the Mississippi River in the territory of Iowa where the citizens of Nauvoo were safe from attack by mobs and Illinois and Missouri militia, and waited for winter to end so they could migrate (citation needed). The legislature initially formed six counties, which covered only inhabited valleys. "Legion of Nauvoo, " Journal History of the Church, Copyright ©2021 The Joseph Smith Jr and Emma Hale Smith Historical Society, © Joseph Smith Jr and Emma Hale Smith Historical Society 2021, Short Biographies of Joseph, Emma, and their family, Emma Smith, My Story Removes False Traditions, 10 Things You Most Likely Didn't Know About Emma Smith - Called to Share, Children of Joseph Smith and Emma Smith History. When they resumed their journey home, they bought two cannons from Sutter, a four pounder and a six pounder. As a speakers podium boy followed by a mob legislature initially formed six counties, which contemporary! For gold and they were quite successful days later, on June 27, he was murdered in,. Militia group known as the Nauvoo Legion men were released from service in 1847, they headed home. 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